1. 20th President, James A. Garfield, Assassinated
James Abram Garfield was born on November 19, 1831 in Orange Township, Ohio and tragically died on September 19, 1881 in Elberon, New Jersey. He was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death six months later. Garfield was the second of four children born to Abram and Eliza Garfield, and was raised in a poor family on a farm. He was a self-educated man, and went on to become a lawyer, a teacher, a preacher, and a politician. Garfield was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau, a disgruntled office seeker, and died of his wounds two months later.
2. A Remarkable Politician
James A. Garfield was a remarkable politician who served nine consecutive terms in the United States House of Representatives from 1863 to 1881. During this time, he was a vocal advocate for civil rights and was instrumental in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1875. After his tenure in the House of Representatives, Garfield was elected the 20th President of the United States in 1880, becoming the only president to have served in the House of Representatives before assuming the presidency.
3. Garfield's Determined Challenge Restored Presidential Power
During his time as President, James A. Garfield made a significant impact on the United States. He was determined to restore the power of the Presidency, and he did so by challenging the traditional Senatorial courtesy in executive activities. This resulted in a resurgence of U.S. naval power and a purge of dishonesty in the Post Office Department. Garfield's actions were highly controversial at the time, but they ultimately had a positive effect on the nation.
4. Champion of Civil Rights and Equality
James A. Garfield made history with his appointments to diplomatic and judiciary positions, most notably appointing the first African-American to the U.S. Supreme Court. He also appointed numerous African-Americans to other notable federal positions, making him a champion of civil rights and equality. His appointments were a major step forward in the fight for racial justice and equality in the United States.
5. James A. Garfield's Williams College Graduation Sets Stage for Success
James A. Garfield achieved a remarkable feat in 1856 when he graduated from Williams College in Massachusetts. His higher education was completed at the prestigious college, which was founded in 1793 and is the second oldest higher education institution in the state. Garfield's graduation from Williams College was a major milestone in his life, and it set the stage for his future successes.
6. " Union Major General"
James A. Garfield was a staunch supporter of the Union during the American Civil War, and served as a Major General in the Union Army. He was involved in several major battles, including Middle Creek, Shiloh and Chickamauga, where he fought bravely to resist Confederate secession. Garfield's commitment to the Union cause was unwavering, and his courage and dedication to the cause of preserving the Union was an inspiration to many.
7. Garfield's Political Career Begins with Election to Congress
In 1862, James A. Garfield was elected to the United States Congress as the Representative of Ohio's 19th District. This marked the beginning of a long and distinguished political career for Garfield, who would go on to serve as the 20th President of the United States. During his time in Congress, Garfield was a vocal advocate for civil rights and was instrumental in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1875. He also served as the chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations and was a leader in the Republican Party.
8. President James A. Garfield Assassinated: Legacy Lives On
On July 2, 1881, President James A. Garfield was tragically shot by assassin Charles J. Guiteau, making him the second of four presidents to be assassinated in American history. Garfield was shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington, D.C. and died 11 weeks later on September 19, 1881. Guiteau was found guilty of the crime and was hanged on June 30, 1882. Garfield's death was a major tragedy for the nation and his legacy still lives on today.
9. 200 Days of Accomplishment
James A. Garfield's presidency was tragically short-lived, lasting only 200 days from March 4, 1881 until his death on September 19, 1881. During this brief period, Garfield was able to accomplish a great deal, including the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, which established the United States Civil Service Commission and began the process of reforming the federal government's patronage system. He also worked to reduce the national debt and to improve the economy. Unfortunately, Garfield's life was cut short by an assassin's bullet, and his presidency ended before he could fully realize his vision for the country.
10. A Strong Advocate for a Bi-Metal Economic System
James A. Garfield was a strong advocate for a bi-metal economic system, which sought to stabilize the economy by using both gold and silver as currency. He also believed in the importance of agricultural knowledge, and sought to educate the public on the subject. He was a firm believer in the power of a knowledgeable electorate, and worked to ensure that all citizens had access to the information they needed to make informed decisions. Finally, Garfield was a passionate supporter of civil rights for African Americans, and worked to ensure that all citizens were treated equally under the law.