## 1. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

The renowned French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, was born on 7 September 1707 and lived to the ripe old age of 80, passing away on 16 April 1788. During his lifetime, he made significant contributions to the fields of natural history, zoology, and botany, and is remembered for his monumental work, Histoire Naturelle, which was published in 36 volumes between 1749 and 1788.

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## 2. Buffon's Influence on Naturalists

The works of Comte de Buffon had a lasting impact on the naturalists of the following two generations, such as Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Georges Cuvier. His works were highly influential in the development of their theories, inspiring them to explore the natural world and its many wonders. Lamarck and Cuvier both credited Buffon for his contributions to their work, and his influence can still be seen in their writings today.

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## 3. Buffon's 36 volumes of Histoire naturelle

The renowned naturalist Comte de Buffon devoted his life to the study of natural history, publishing a total of 36 quarto volumes of his Histoire naturelle during his lifetime. His work was so influential that even after his death, additional volumes based on his notes and further research were published over the course of the next 20 years. This remarkable legacy of knowledge has been an invaluable resource for generations of scientists and naturalists.

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## 4. Buffon's Legacy

The Comte de Buffon was a renowned French naturalist and mathematician who revolutionized the field of natural history in the second half of the 18th century. His works, which included a 36-volume natural history encyclopedia, were highly influential and earned him the title of "father of all thought in natural history". His contributions to the field included the development of the first classification system for plants and animals, as well as the introduction of the concept of extinction. His work was so influential that it has been said that "Truly, Buffon was the father of all thought in natural history in the second half of the 18th century".

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## 5. Buffon, the Father of Natural History

The Comte de Buffon was a renowned French naturalist and mathematician who served as the director of the Jardin du Roi, now known as the Jardin des Plantes, from 1739 to 1788. During his tenure, he made significant contributions to the fields of botany, zoology, and geology, and was responsible for the establishment of the first public zoo in Paris. He also wrote several influential books on natural history, including the 36-volume Histoire Naturelle, which was published between 1749 and 1804.

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## 6. Buffon's Legacy in Mathematics

The Comte de Buffon made a lasting impression in the field of mathematics with his work, Sur le jeu de franc-carreau. In this work, he introduced differential and essential calculus into probability theory, a revolutionary concept at the time. This was a major breakthrough in the field of mathematics, and it has had a lasting impact on the way probability theory is studied and understood today.

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## 7. Buffon's Needle: A Problem That Still Needs Solving

The Comte de Buffon was a French naturalist and mathematician who made significant contributions to the field of probability theory. His name is immortalized in the famous 'Buffon's Needle' problem, which is still used today to calculate the value of pi. The problem involves dropping a needle onto a series of parallel lines and calculating the probability of the needle crossing one of the lines. This problem has been used for centuries to calculate the value of pi, and is still used today in probability theory.

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## 8. Buffon's Law: The First Belief of Biogeography

The Comte de Buffon was a pioneering figure in the field of biogeography, having observed that despite similar environments, distinctive regions have distinct plants and animals - a notion later known as Buffon's Law. This was the first belief of biogeography, and it has since been used to explain the distribution of species across the globe. Buffon's Law has been a cornerstone of the field ever since, and his work has been instrumental in furthering our understanding of the animal world.

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## 9. The Debate Over Monogenism and Degeneration

The Comte de Buffon and Johann Blumenbach were both strong proponents of monogenism, the idea that all races have a single origin. They also held to the "Degeneration theory" of racial origins, which states that the original human race was perfect and that all other races have devolved from it over time. This theory was based on the belief that the environment and climate had a direct effect on the physical characteristics of a race, leading to the development of different racial characteristics.

**Also** → Carl Linnaeus: The Father of Ecology

## 10. Buffon, the Father of Evolution

The Comte de Buffon was a pioneering figure in the field of science, as he was the first to put forth the idea of evolution and develop a notion of the "unity of type". His work in comparative anatomy was groundbreaking, as he was the first to suggest that all living organisms could be traced back to a single source. His theories were revolutionary for the time, and laid the groundwork for the modern understanding of evolution and the related sciences.

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